In Canada softwood tariffs dispute, U.S. wins WTO ruling on antidumping duties
April 9, 2019 | 10:22 am CDT
WASHINGTON, D.C – In a challenge by Canada to an antidumping investigation of softwood lumber products, the U.S. won the latest ruling, says Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer. The World Trade Organization (WTO) panel has found in favor of the United States in a dispute involving the use of “zeroing” in calculating antidumping duties. 
This dispute concerned a challenge by Canada to an antidumping investigation of softwood lumber products. When Commerce calculates a weighted average dumping margin for a given company, it typically takes into account numerous comparisons between sales in the United States and sales in the home market or third country market (or costs in the home market).  It is not uncommon for Commerce to find that some comparisons reveal dumping (i.e., the price in the United States is lower than the home market price), while others reveal no dumping (i.e., the price in the United States is equal to or higher than the home market price). 
Where a comparison reveals no dumping, Commerce assigns a zero to that comparison, rather than a negative number equal to the amount by which the U.S. price exceeds the home market price. This approach is commonly referred to as “zeroing." Its net effect is to not offset dumping charges in areas where the U.S. price is higher. 
It is the fifth time overall, and the first time in relation to the specific “differential pricing” methodology at issue in this dispute, that a WTO panel has disagreed with the Appellate Body and found that WTO rules do not prohibit zeroing. The contentious issue of softwood lumber traed was left unresolved by the Obama Administration, and so the Trump White house has aggressively challenged Canada on this issue. (The impact of this and other duties and tariffs on the U.S. wood manufacturing industries will e examined at the Executive Briefing Conference next week in a presentation by Freedonia Research Group's John Sherwin.)
“The WTO rules do not prohibit ‘zeroing’,” said Ambassador Lighthizer.  “The United States never agreed to any such rule in the WTO negotiations, and never would." Lighthizer said Appellate Body reports are not binding precedent, and the WTO panel has an obligation to reverse what he called"flawed reasoning."
The U.S. Lumber Coalition cheered the WTO decision. The U.S. industry strongly supports the Administration’s full enforcement of the U.S. trade laws against subsidized and dumped Canadian imports," said Jason Brochu, U.S. Lumber Coalition Co-Chair and Co-President of Pleasant River Lumber Company in Maine. 
“The fair chance to compete on a level playing field is of utmost importance to domestic lumber manufacturers, their workers, as well as tree farmers and landowners, and the economies of the rural communities they support across the United States.” 
The WTO panel considered and rejected Appellate Body findings concerning the use of “zeroing” to calculate antidumping duties. The panel interpreted the WTO Antidumping Agreement and found that the text does not prohibit zeroing under the alternative methodology designed to address targeted dumping. In fact, the panel found that, reading a prohibition on zeroing into the text would render that alternative approach useless, contrary to the intention of WTO Members.  The panel explained that it “carefully considered” prior panel and Appellate Body reports but disagreed with those reports and therefore found convincing reasons to arrive at different conclusions.
The United States has longstanding concerns about unfairly dumped and subsidized imports of softwood lumber products from Canada.  In 2017, the U.S. Department of Commerce (Commerce) and the U.S. International Trade Commission (USITC) found, for the third time in three decades, that Canadian producers are dumping softwood lumber in the U.S. market and causing material injury to U.S. softwood lumber producers. 
The softwood lumber industry is a vital part of the U.S. economy.  There are thousands of sawmills throughout the United States, the majority of which are small, local mills.  The USITC identified producers across the country, in AK, AL, AR, AZ, CA, CO, FL, GA, ID, LA, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, NH, NY, OK, OR, SC, SD, TX, VA, UT, WA, WI, WV, and WY.  In 2016, the U.S. softwood lumber industry employed more than 18,000 workers and shipped approximately $7.12 billion of softwood lumber products.  Imports of softwood lumber products from Canada in 2016 totaled $5.78 billion. 
In this dispute, Canada challenged Commerce’s affirmative final determination in the antidumping investigation of softwood lumber products from Canada.  Specifically, Canada challenged Commerce’s use of a “differential pricing” analysis and “zeroing” in connection with an alternative methodology provided for in the WTO Antidumping Agreement that permits WTO Members to identify and address injurious targeted dumping.
Commerce has used a “differential pricing” analysis to identify a pattern of export prices which differ significantly among different purchasers, regions, or time periods.  The identification of such a pattern is a prerequisite to applying an alternative methodology to unmask targeted dumping, which can be hidden when high-priced sales are averaged together with low-priced sales.
This panel found that the use of “zeroing” in connection with the alternative, targeted dumping methodology under Article 2.4.2 of the Antidumping Agreement is not inconsistent with WTO rules.  Among other things, the panel reasoned that nothing in the text of the Antidumping Agreement directly addresses the use of “zeroing”.  The panel agreed with the United States that, if the use of “zeroing” were prohibited in connection with the alternative, targeted dumping methodology, then the alternative calculation methodology necessarily always would result in a margin of dumping that is mathematically equivalent to that calculated using the normal calculation methodology, which would render the alternative methodology useless.  In coming to its conclusion, the panel also examined and disagreed with findings in prior WTO panel and Appellate Body reports.  The panel explained why it found the approach of those reports not persuasive.
The panel also found that one aspect of Commerce’s “differential pricing” analysis – in which Commerce aggregated differences in export prices across categories (i.e., purchasers, regions, and time periods) to find a single pattern of export prices which differed significantly among different purchasers, regions, and time periods – was inconsistent with the requirements of the WTO Antidumping Agreement.
Either party may request adoption of the panel report by the WTO Dispute Settlement Body (DSB) or may appeal the report. 

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About the author
Bill Esler | ConfSenior Editor

Bill wrote for, FDMC and Closets & Organized Storage magazines. 

Bill's background includes more than 10 years in print manufacturing management, followed by more than 30 years in business reporting on industrial manufacturing in the forest products industries, including printing and packaging at American Printer (Features Editor) and Graphic Arts Monthly (Editor in Chief) magazines; and in secondary wood manufacturing for

Bill was deeply involved with the launches of the Woodworking Network Leadership Forum, and the 40 Under 40 Awards programs. He currently reports on technology and business trends and develops conference programs.

In addition to his work as a journalist, Bill supports efforts to expand and improve educational opportunities in the manufacturing sectors, including 10 years on the Print & Graphics Scholarship Foundation; six years with the U.S. WoodLinks; and currently on the Woodwork Career Alliance Education Committee. He is also supports the Greater West Town Training Partnership Woodworking Program, which has trained more than 950 adults for industrial wood manufacturing careers. 

Bill volunteers for Foinse Research Station, a biological field station staddling the border of Ireland and Northern Ireland, one of more than 200 members of the Organization of Biological Field Stations.