75% of exclusive hardwood may be illegally harvested
Posted by Larry Adams

Photo By Chalmers. Photo: Mauricio Mercadante, via Flickr | Opwdecks, via Wikimedia Commons.

The tropical wood type ipê is popular for building exclusive wooden decks, and in North America and Europe, the demand for the material has increased sharply. Now, a study from Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, shows that more than three-quarters of all ipê from the top-producing region in Brazil could have been harvested illegally.

"The study reveals where in the chain the greatest risks lie. It can be a tool to counteract illegal logging," said Caroline S.S. Franca, PhD student at Chalmers.

Ipê is one of the world's hardest woods. It is therefore particularly suitable for building balconies, conservatories, stairs, or piers. Demand for tropical wood has increased steadily in recent years, especially in European, American, and Canadian markets. In Brazil, the country of origin for 96 percent of all ipê on the market, exports have increased by over 76 percent in volume over the past decade. 

This development means an increased risk of illegal logging of ipê, which in November 2022 was included on the Cites list of species threatened by overexploitation due to its popularity and increasing demand through international trade.

"Some products from the rainforest are more valuable and therefore more vulnerable to illegal logging. Ipê is at the top of that list. At the same time, ipê trees grow slowly, which means that regrowth takes a long time. The risk of extinction is real, and today there are no reliable figures on the amount of remaining trees and the damage to existing stands that has already been done," said Franca.

Mapping risks 
Franca is the lead author of a research study on the risks of illegal logging of ipê in Brazil, which was recently published in Nature Sustainability. In the study, the researchers analyzed extensive amounts of data to identify where in the supply chains there are significant risks that logging has taken place illegally.

The conclusion is that more than three-quarters of all ipê from Pará—the top-producing state of this wood in Brazil and a major source of exports—in the period 2009-2019 may have been illegally harvested.

"In the study, we see, for example, that 16 percent of the ipê that ends up on the market is harvested without proper permits, and that landowners claim that they have felled more ipê on their land than is likely to exist on the stated area. We also show that there is more wood in circulation than the official production figures indicate," she says. 

Better enforcement
“We know that illegal logging is driving forest degradation, and is linked to organized crime, conflict, and the destruction of forest-dependent local communities,” continues Franca, adding that “degradation of Amazon forests does not only affect the local environment and the ecological diversity of the rainforest, it is also as large of a contributor to climate change as outright deforestation.”

She hopes that her research results can contribute to an increased awareness of the extent of illegal logging among decision-makers and actors in the supply chain, as well as among consumers.

“The novel methods developed in the study, exploring existing patterns in the data for transactions and approvals of ipê exploration have an enormous potential both to improve forest control systems in Brazil, as well as to support supply-chain actors in their efforts to make timber sourcing more responsible and sustainable," said Marco Lentini, a co-author of the study with a long-standing experience working on sustainable forest management in the Brazilian Amazon.

Recent numbers from Brazil’s forest monitoring system show that deforestation in the Amazon has been almost halved in 2023, compared to last year. Brazilian President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva also initiated the so-called Belém Declaration—an alliance among eight South American countries to combat the deforestation of the Amazon, adopted on August 8, 2023.

"This declaration is a welcome expression of renewed political will to reduce deforestation," comments Martin Persson, co-author of the ipê study and a Chalmers researcher with extensive experience of research on the devastation of the Amazon. 

But he also emphasizes that the danger is far from over and that the declaration itself will not lead to change.

“Halting deforestation and forest degradation requires concrete policy measures. And what we point out in our study is that there is already data and information that can be used by authorities to get to those who harvest forests illegally," he said. 

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